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35  TODAY'S LESSON:  CAYETANA                                                                               October 27, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Who is Cayetana?  


36  TODAY'S LESSON:            The Coast Miwoks                                                           October 28, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Who are these two pictures here?  

"Tell them," he would tell his two daughters, Maxima and Maria Ynitia, as they both gathered with him. "Tell them, tell your children, tell your grandchildren, to tell their children and grandchildren, to tell their grandchildren.....Tell them never to forget our People. Tell them we were here for thousands of years. Tell them that that all changed. Tell them that we were a Peaceful and Happy People. Tell your children, in words that they will never forget!"

"Why has this happened to us, Papa," Maxima and Maria would take turns talking. "We will tell them, we'll tell our children, and they will tell thiers, and for generations on down, they will tell the Story of a People that once were here, in large numbers, our ancestors, for many many hundreds and thousands of years, dwelled on the land, freely to roam in harmony with Nature, the way we were taught, the way of our People. We will tell them, Papa."

"Tell them that they brought the diseases, they incarcerated us in what were supposed to be safe houses, Missions. They made the laws. Be strong, Maxima and Maria. It's up to you two to carry on the lineage and the heritage. Fight with all you have to preserve our history and our ways, even if that means your voice. Sit with whoever will listen, and tell them the story of Our People, The Coast Miwok (of the Southern Marin Area.) We fished these waters, we hunted these grounds, we fed our People, we danced the ceremonies. We loved our family, we were surrounded by our family. We watched the same waters of the San Francisco Bay that they will see generations after us. Tell them, Girls, Never To Forget Us!"

37  TELL THEM...                                                                                                           November 11, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:  Who are these two pictures here?  

Maria and Maxima teens_edited.jpg

38  TELL THEM...                                                                                                           November 21, 2022

TOPIC:  From the article, where did Petaluma get it's name?

Marin Coast m.jpg

The typed text: INDIANS OF MARIN, PUBLISHED IN 1967: The Indians of Marin County lived along the coast amount the hills and valleys. We refer to them as the “Miwok” for “Mewah” was their own word for themselves. One old Miwok village called Awaniwi near San Rafael; its boundary being marked at one point by Red Rock which landmark formed a corner of. Canada de Herrera.

As these Indians lived in a mild climate, they needed and wore few cloths, though they loved ornaments and bedrocked themselves gaily. They did have fur capes to wear if the weather was unusually cold weather was unusually cold and grass skirts for the women to wear on festive occasions.

The Miwok were not very tall, but were sturdy, healthy people. Sir Francis Drake wrote that they were so strong one of them easily could carry “that which two or three Englishmen could hardly bear. “ In order to gather or capture food, the tribe made some tools of bone stone, rushes, wood, and vines. They did use the rock found natively in Marin County to fashion points for spears and arrows but they preferred the black volcanic glass, obsidian, obtained to barter from their neighbors to the north.

In their boats, the Miwok worked their way into centers of streams or into calmer parts of the sea or bay. There shallow tule boats were constructed by tying bundles of rushes together so that the center was somewhat lower than the sides, making the boat more or less stable and giving the boatmen a place to sit. The boats that were made by families living near Bolinas Bay were probably waterproofed with tar, as there was an asphaltum seep a short distance from the village.

The men of the Miwok tribal were chiefly responsible for bringing home the meat while the women gathered roots, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and Barry’s. The tastiest nuts which they gathered were the pine nuts, but the primary staple of their diet was the acorn.

Though once they were numbered in the thousands, the Miwok (no longer true) are virtually extinct, wiped out by warfare with the white settlers and by disease. A particularly virulent epidemic of smallpox, contracted from the white man ,took the lives of 60,000 Indians in Marin, Sonoma, Solano, and Napa counties around the middle of the 19th century. But the Miwok have not been entirely forgotten for many of their words have been incorporated in our language; “tamal” was their word for Bay and the Spaniards called their land Tamal-Pais”; the two Miwok words “peta” meaning flat and “luma” meaning hill were combined to give Petaluma its name; and the Miwok “ole” or coyote, has come to us in the name of the town Olema.

The best known names the Miwok have left us are the names of two of their most important chiefs: Marin, from whom the county takes the name, and Quinton, his aid. By a curious misunderstanding, Quentin’s name has been rendered as “San Quentin” in place names, thereby making him a saint; many of the Miwoks are said to have enjoyed a hearty laugh at this joke.

39  TYPED TEXT OF ABOVE ARTICLE...                                                                                November 23, 2022

TOPIC:  From the article, where did Tamalpias get it's name?

40  ...     The Coast Miwok Awareness Movement                                              December 4,  2022

TOPIC:  Pictures from the last few years of bringing the Coast Miwok Name forward in Marin County

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41  ...     The Coast Miwok were also basket weavers                                             December 4,  2022

TOPIC:  The Coast Miwok were also basket weavers like this.  Can you find Pictures of Coast Miwok Baskets? 

42  ...     The Coast Miwok were also basket weavers                                             December 9,  2022

TOPIC:   Camillo Ynitia and Olompali.  Can you find Olompali on the map below?

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Copyright © by Toucan Valley Publications, Inc. | Source Citation


Location: Central California (Coast Miwok - Marin County; Lake Miwok - Lake County)

Language: Penutian family

1770 estimate: Coast 1,500; Lake 500
1910 Census: Coast 11; Lake 7

The Coast Miwok and the Lake Miwok were the northern members of the large Miwok group, most of whom lived inland, from the Sacramento River delta to the Sierra Nevada mountains.  It was Coast Miwok people whom Sir Francis Drake met in 1579 when he explored along the California coast.  The description of the people written by Drake's party was later confirmed by research.


Coast Miwok villages were on Bodega Bay and Tomales Bay, on the protected shores of San Francisco Bay, and in the wooded peninsula between these bays.  Today's place names of Cotati, Olema, Tomales, and Tamalpais come from the Coast Miwok.  The Lake Miwok lived along several creeks south of Clear Lake.  They made trips to Bodega Bay, in Coast Miwok territory, to gather food. 

Larger villages each had a headman, the hóypu.  One of his jobs was to give speeches about how the people should behave and what work needed to be done.  An assistant leader, the málle, helped to make sure that what the headman said was carried out.  The máyen (or máien) was a woman leader who supervised some of the important ceremonies, and sometimes told the hóypu what to do.


Their houses were round, made on a frame of poles (often from the willow tree) around a hole dug in the ground.  A large center pole supported side poles that were all lashed together at the top.  Slender poles were tied across the upright poles.  Over all of this, bundles of rushes or tule reeds were tied with cord.  The reeds were then covered with dirt.  The fireplace in the center of the house was surrounded by stones.  A smokehole over the fireplace could be covered with a sealskin to keep out the rain.  A flat woven mat covered the doorway.

Large villages had sweathouses or ceremonial houses built in much the same way as the family houses, though with the ground dug out four or five feet deep.  These buildings had entrance tunnels that slanted down to the underground room. 


There was a big variety of food available for the Coast and Lake Miwok.  Oak trees were common, and acorns was one of the basic foods.  Buckeye nuts were used much like acorns, ground into a meal and made into mush.  Berries from the pepperwood (or California laurel) tree were made into cakes, or used to make a drink said to be something like chocolate.  Manzanita berries were dried and then made into a flour that was rolled into balls and eaten as a sweet.  Nuts from the yellow and sugar pine trees were eaten, as were the seeds that came from the pine cones.

The sea was an important source of food for both the Coast and Lake Miwok.  They did not eat sea mammals, but did eat fish, eels, crabs, mussels and clams.  Seaweed was gathered and dried.  After being baked, it could be saved for eating later.  The Coast Miwok, of course, had easier access to the ocean than did the Lake Miwok.  Both groups caught trout and other freshwater fish in the streams.  Salmon were taken as they entered the rivers to spawn.

Deer and elk were hunted all during the year.   Deer bones were cracked open to get the marrow.  The grizzly bear was less common than the deer and more difficult to kill.  Smaller animals such as rabbits, squirrels, wood rats and gophers were easier to catch.  Birds were hunted both as food and for their feathers.  Ducks, geese, mud hens, and other waterfowl, as well as quail and other land birds, were caught in traps or nets.

The Lake Miwok liked to eat the larva (newly hatched) of yellow jackets, which they roasted.  They also roasted and ate grasshoppers.


Because the climate was mild, the people did not need many clothes to keep warm.  Men sometimes wore an apron-like loin cloth tied at the waist.  Women wore a skirt, either made in two sections like a double apron, or in one piece with an opening down one side.  The clothing was made of deerskin or of tule reeds tied together.

Deer or rabbit skins were used to make blankets or capes that were worn over the shoulders.  The rabbit skins were cut into strips and then fastened together with cord to make a blanket.  Both men and women usually had their feet bare.  Men wore a net cap on their head, sometimes with the soft feathers of baby eagles drawn through the mesh of the net.  Feathers were also used to decorate bracelets and belts.


The Coast and Lake Miwok were skilled in making baskets, which they used for all cooking, carrying, and storing.  Women did most of the basketmaking, though men sometimes made carrying baskets and special willow containers for their hunting equipment.  Both methods of making baskets (twining and coiling) were used.  Willow sticks were bent to form the basic shape of the basket.  Woven through the willow were pieces of grass or pine roots.  Tule reeds were used to make mats.  Designs were made by using bulrush roots blackened in ashes, or redbud sprouts.  Special baskets were decorated with abalone shells and with red and white feathers. 

From wood the Coast and Lake Miwok made bows and arrows, hollow-log foot drums, and double-bladed paddles for their rafts.  The bow was backed with sinew from the wing of the brown pelican.  The arrows had three feathers.  Obsidian (volcanic glass) and flint (a type of quartz) was used for axes, spear tips, knives, and arrowheads.  The flint was shaped with tools made from deer and elk antler.

To cross streams or bays, rafts of a few logs or of tule reeds were made.  Bundles of reeds were bound together with grapevines or rope made of milkweed fiber.  The rafts were shaped somewhat like canoes. 


Clamshell beads were used as money.  The beads were made by polishing small disks of shell, punching a hole in each, and stringing them on cords.   Though the clamshells came from Coast Miwok territory, the people here did not seem to have any advantage of wealth and did not engage in a great deal of trading.  The Lake Miwok had a source of magnesite (a stone that turns reddish when heated) from which beads were made.  Magnesite beads were of more value than clamshell beads (one report is that a one-inch magnesite bead was worth two yards of clamshell money). 


The Coast and Lake Miwok held many dances during the year.  Sometimes a large dance house was built for a special ceremony.  Dances were held to celebrate the capture of bear, deer, or salmon; to mark a young person's becoming an adult; to install a new headman.  In some ceremonies, the dancers would take on the role of a bear or a coyote.  Sometimes only the men danced; other times women and children participated, with a woman sometimes being the head dancer.

Dance costumes were made from the skin of a brown or white pelican, cut in such a way that the wings made the sleeves of the costume. Feather headdresses were worn.  Foot drums, flutes, cocoon rattles and split-stick clappers made music for the dances.

43  ...     The Coast and Lake Miwoks were similar      December 17,  2022

TOPIC:   Coast Miwok and Lake Miwok

44  ...     The Coast Miwok were Ceremonious                                                             January 23, 2023

TOPIC:   Dancers ... what can you find out about the Coast Miwok Dancers?

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Quote from the internet:

"Origins and group affiliations

Miwok groups have occupied Central California for at least three thousand years. The four Miwok groups are Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Bay Miwok, and Valley (or Sierra) Miwok. The Coast, Bay, and Lake Miwok were cut off from the Sierra Miwok and from each other by the Pomo, Patwin, and Wappo tribes. The Miwok married people of the Pomo and Maidu tribes among other neighbors. During the mid-1800s the Valley Miwoks formed an alliance with the Yokuts to fight white encroachment on their territory. In modern times some Miwok share reservations or rancherias with the Maidu, Pomo, and Wintun."

45  ...     The Coast Miwok were Ceremonious                                                             February  08, 2023

TOPIC:   Miwoks were large and all had similarities.

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46  ...     The Coast Miwok were Ceremonious                                                             February  11, 2023

TOPIC:   Maria and Maxima Ynitia - the last of the Full Blood Coast Miwok of Southern Marin

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47  ...    How did Marin County Look For Thousands of years                                       February  21, 2023

TOPIC:   Marin Miwok Envision

48 ...    What makes the Coast Miwok Special?                                                               March  27, 2023

TOPIC:  Marin Miwok - who are we?

TODAY'S LESSON:  An Artist Rendition of Camillo Ynitia                                                October 21, 2020


ASSIGNMENT:  Who is he?  (we know it says Camillo Ynitia, but Who is he?)

A Miwok Village in Marin County.                                                                                  October 22, 2020

AN INFORMATIVE WRITING ON THE MIWOKS!                                                                     November 1, 2020

TODAY'S LESSON:  Southern Most Coast Miwok Tribal Village Names                    November 12, 2020


ASSIGNMENT:  See what you can find on each name!

TODAY'S LESSON: Maxima Ynitia Willard                                                                November 17, 2020


ASSIGNMENT:   Write a 500-word page story about Maxima!


TODAY'S LESSON: Sweat Lodge                                                                                November 19, 2020


ASSIGNMENT:   What were sweat lodges used for?

A great Historical Gift!                                                                                                 November 30, 2020

TODAY'S LESSON:  Our Lineage                                                                                December 1, 2020


TODAY'S LESSON:  Our Lineage    - Maria Ynitia                                                        December 3, 2020


TODAY'S LESSON:  Our Lineage    - Architecture                                                    January 4, 2021


TODAY'S LESSON:  Our Lineage    - The Language                                          January 6, 2021

ASSIGNMENT:  Find out how to say hello in Coast Miwok Language!


TODAY'S LESSON:  Our Lineage    -  The California History                     January 17, 2021

ASSIGNMENT:  Watch the following video


TODAY'S LESSON:   WE ARE BACK TO THE LESSONS HERE                                   AUGUST 4, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Let us know if you want these lessons to continue!


TODAY'S LESSON:  Some tribes of California                                                 Augst 15, 2022

ASSIGNMENT:  Find the tribes that are NOT listed!

TODAY'S LESSON:  Angel Island and the Coast Miwok                                        August 21, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Have there ever been Coast Miwoks artifacts found on Angel Island?

TODAY'S LESSON:  Miwok Language                                                     August 26, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Learn 10 more words of the Miwok language

TODAY'S LESSON:  Ranches of Marin                                                                August 29, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Can you find the Coast Miwok on here?

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33  TODAY'S LESSON:  Joseph Knox Check book                                                August 30, 2022


ASSIGNMENT:   Who is Joseph Knox?  What year was the check book made?  How much are things?

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